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UMD Researchers Use Simulation Tool to Observe Molecular Behavior

March 25, 2020

 Robert Herschbach 410-245-8959

COLLEGE PARK, Md. – From targeted drug delivery to oil extraction, engineers are finding ways to use miniscule particles, known as nanoparticles, that can interact with substances in various ways, such as causing them to adhere. Doing so requires an understanding of how the particle surfaces behave—and that can be tricky, given the submicroscopic scales involved. Often, conventional experimental methods aren’t able to deliver sufficiency precise data.

Researchers at UMD, led by associate professor of mechanical engineering Siddhartha Das, have been utilizing a simulation tool to model the behavior of individual atoms and molecules. With this approach, “we’re able to obtain unprecedented levels of atomistic detail for problems of great engineering and biomedical significance,” Das said.

The team has now published key findings in the journal Matter, a Cell Press publication. A paper appearing in the journal details how Das and the research team—which also includes Dr. Peter W. Chung, Parth Rakesh Desai, Sai Ankit Etha, Turash Haque Pial, Harnoor Singh Sachar, and Yanbin Wang—were able to employ molecular dynamics to simulate, with unprecedented atomistic detail, the behavior of long, charged molecules (often known as polyelectrolytes or PEs) when they are attached to surfaces and attain configurations that resemble the bristles of our toothbrushes. 

Such architectures are known as PE brushes. “What PE brushes do is modify the properties of the surfaces in order to create the desired interactions. This is called ‘functionalizing the surfaces,’” Das said.

Such ‘functionalization’ is used to attribute a variety of capabilities to surfaces, such as nanochannel walls or nanoparticle surfaces, for applications ranging from sensing and rectification to drug delivery and oil recovery. 

“This is one of the earliest studies to probe the intriguing behavior of PE brushes with such a remarkable level of atomistic resolution,” Das said. “It allows us to provide an unprecedented description of the ions and water molecules with atomistic resolution: this enables a better understanding of the behavior of the PE brushes, which in turn will help us to significantly improve the different applications where the PE-brush-grafted surfaces are employed.”

Their work has broad relevance to scientists seeking to manipulate various kinds of surfaces and particles so they can be used for different purposes—for example, water harvesting, in which rain and moisture is collected for human use, or in recovering oil from tiny niches inside rocks. Scientists developing treatments for cancer also seek to manipulate the surfaces of submicroscopic particles in order to use them in identifying sick cells.

Through running their simulations, the team observed two specific phenomena: an “ultraconfinement effect,” leading to changes in distribution, structure, and properties, and a water-in-salt-like scenario, in which water molecules become replaced by molecules from the brushes.

Das wrote the paper together with Sachar, a PhD student in the mechanical engineering department. Sachar and fellow doctoral student Pial ran the simulations, while the data was analyzed by PhD students Desai, Etha, and Wang, and by Chung, an associate professor of mechanical engineering. The Deepthought2 High-Performance Computing cluster provided computational support.


Their work was supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The paper will be published on Volume 2, Issue 6 of the journal, with a publication date of June 3, and is currently available online at https://www.cell.com/matter.


UMD Graduate Programs Receive High Rankings by U.S. News & World Report

March 18, 2020

Tiffany Blossom, tblossom@umd.edu, 301-405-4535

COLLEGE PARK, Md. --  University of Maryland schools, colleges and programs were recognized in the U.S. News & World Report in its 2021 Best Graduate School rankings released yesterday. The following UMD programs and specialties ranked in the Top 10 in the nation: counseling/personnel services (No. 1, College of Education & College of Behavioral and Social Sciences), homeland/national security (No. 4, School of Public Policy), educational psychology (No. 5, College of Education), higher ed administration (No. 10, College of Education), information systems (No. 10, Robert H. Smith School of Business), and audiology (No. 10, College of Behavioral and Social Sciences).

Here are this year’s highlights:

  • The College of Education & College of Behavioral and Social Sciences hold one top 5 joint ranking: counseling/personnel services (No. 1).
  • The College of Education holds another top 5 ranking: educational psychology (No. 5) and eight top 20 rankings: counseling/personnel services (No. 1), education psychology (No. 5), higher ed administration (No. 10), special education (No. 14), secondary teacher education (No. 16), education policy (No. 17), curriculum and instruction (No. 19), and elementary education (No. 19).
  • The College of Behavioral and Social Sciences also holds two top 20 rankings: audiology (No. 10) and speech-language pathology (No. 16).
  • The School of Public Policy holds one top 5 ranking: homeland/national security (No. 4) and three top 20 rankings: homeland/national security (No. 4), public finance & budgeting (No. 11), and international global policy (No. 12).
  • The A. James Clark School of Engineering holds four top 20 rankings: aerospace (No. 12), computer (No. 14), electrical (No. 14), and mechanical engineering (No. 17). 
  • The Robert H. Smith School of Business holds one top 20 ranking: information systems (No. 10).

The U.S. News 2021 Best Graduate Schools listing evaluates graduate programs across six major disciplines in business, education, engineering, law, medicine, and nursing, including specialties in each area. The rankings are based on expert opinions about program excellence and statistical indicators that measure the quality of a school’s faculty, research output, and student achievement. According to U.S. News, the data for the rankings in all six disciplines came from statistical and reputation surveys sent to tens of thousands of academics and professionals, conducted in fall 2019 and early 2020.

While not every program is ranked each year, UMD still retains several top 20 graduate programs rankings from previous cycles:

  • The College of Behavioral and Social Sciences holds one top 5 ranking: criminology (No. 1), ranked in 2018.
  • The College of Arts and Humanities holds one top 5 ranking: african american history (No. 2), ranked in 2017.
  • The College of Information Studies holds one top 10 ranking: best library and information studies programs (No. 8) ranked in 2017.
  • The College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences holds two top 20 rankings: physics (No. 14) ranked in 2018 and computer science (No. 16) ranked in 2018. 

The full U.S. News & World Report’s Best Graduate School rankings are available here, with UMD’s complete graduate rankings listed here


University of Maryland Announces No Classes on Friday, March 13, 2020

March 12, 2020

Due to the evolving COVID-19 outbreak, UMD will begin spring break one day early. Classes and exams will be held tonight. Classes are canceled and administrative offices are closed Friday, March 13, 2020. Residence Halls will close as previously scheduled on Friday, March 13, 2020 at 7:00 PM. Additional information is forthcoming. 

Maryland Energy Innovation Institute leads U.S. Side of an $18.4 M Energy Storage Research Grant Awarded to U.S.-Israel Energy Center

March 11, 2020

COLLEGE PARK, Md. – The Maryland Energy Innovation Institute will lead the U.S. side of an $18.4 million, five-year, U.S.-Israel Energy Center award from the Binational Industrial Research and Development (BIRD) Foundation. The award will support development of lithium and sodium metal solid-state batteries for advanced energy storage.

"We are delighted to serve as the U.S. lead for one of the first consortia funded by the U.S.-Israel Energy Center," said UMD Professor Eric Wachsman, director of the Maryland Energy Innovation Institute (MEI2) a partnership between the University of Maryland (UMD) and the State of Maryland. Wachsman is the lead Principal Investigator for the U.S. portion of the BIRD Energy Center award.  "Our industrial and academic partners, in both Israel and the U.S., are leaders in the development of battery materials, components, and cells, as well as materials informatics, and we look forward to addressing the research and development challenges associated with solid state batteries with them through our Energy Center.”

The goal of the U.S.-Israel Energy Center is to promote energy security and economic development through the research and development of innovative technologies. The Energy Center is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and by the Israel Ministry of Energy, jointly with the Israel Innovation Authority.  Partners in the U.S. in addition to Maryland’s MEI2 include Saft and Forge Nano.  In Israel, academic partners include Bar Ilan University (BIU) and Tel Aviv University, and company participants include 3DB and Materials Zone.  MEI2 participants include University of Maryland Professors Wachsman, Sang Bok Lee, Gary Rubloff, and Paul Albertus.

This award was initially stimulated by a University of Maryland NanoCenter energy research collaboration with Israel’s Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced materials.  UMD and BIU held the first teleconference on broad energy research in June, 2019, and agreed enthusiastically to pursue the US-Israel Energy Center program that the BIRD Foundation announced early last year.  

This Energy Storage award was the largest of three awards under the U.S.-Israel Energy Center  announced on March 6 by U.S. Secretary of Energy Dan Brouillette and Israel’s Minister of Energy Dr. Yuval Steinitz.  For more information on these BIRD Foundation awards click here

 The Maryland Energy Innovation Institute brings together science, industry, government and economic leaders to develop solutions to global and local energy problems (i.e. cleaner and renewable energy solutions; more efficient use and storage of energy) and assist the transfer of knowledge and resources to the public in addition to transitioning the research into marketable products and services through locally based entrepreneurial ventures.



New Public Safety Degree Addresses Changing Landscape of Law Enforcement

March 11, 2020

University of Maryland:
Natifia Mullings, mullings@umd.edu, 301-405-4076

University of Maryland, Baltimore:
Laura Lee, laura.lee@umaryland.edu, 410-706-0023

An innovative new online master’s degree program developed jointly by the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law in Baltimore and the University of Maryland College of Behavioral and Social Sciences (BSOS) in College Park will prepare public safety officials for careers in a rapidly changing landscape.

Set to launch in fall 2020, the Master’s of Professional Studies in Public Safety Leadership and Administration (PLA) is designed to meet the needs of professionals in a broad array of careers, including law enforcement, corrections, public safety education, juvenile justice, social services, disaster preparedness and more.

The curriculum is a response to a growing need for advanced training in leadership, policy, and law for police, public safety officials and other public servants. Courses including Ethics in Criminal Justice, Building Partnerships with Criminal Justice Agencies and Public Image Management and Policy Solutions will be taught by sociologists, criminologists and law professors from both institutions.

The program is funded by The University of Maryland Strategic Partnership: MPowering the State (MPower) which leverages the sizable strengths and complementary missions of both campuses to strengthen Maryland’s innovation economy, advance interdisciplinary research, create opportunities for students, and solve important problems for the people of Maryland and the nation.

“Law enforcement faces challenges in the twenty-first century that we couldn’t have anticipated just a few decades ago. Advances in AI technology and predictive policing, the emergence of social media and increased public scrutiny, and increased coordination between local, state, and federal agencies—these all have an impact on public safety,” said Associate Professor Rashawn Ray, Ph.D., of the Department of Sociology at the University of Maryland College Park.  “We designed this program alongside law enforcement professionals and criminal justice practitioners who are dealing with new phenomena and working with members of their communities every day to keep people safe.”

While working toward the master’s degree, students will earn two graduate certificates—one in Criminal Justice Administration and one in Leadership in Diverse Organizations. Both the graduate certificates and the Master’s degree can be completed in 15 months. All courses are online to give students flexibility, as many who enroll are likely to be working professionals.

“I think for someone who aspires to leadership in their department—whether it be police, or investigative, or immigration—having this credential will help you stand out and gain the respect of those you’re dealing with,” said Michael Greenberger, JD, a professor at Maryland Carey Law. “This kind of advanced degree will lead a candidate to stand out in the application pool.”

Lester Andrist, Ph.D., the program coordinator at College Park, said the advanced degree in public safety couldn’t have come at a better time. “Given the central role that public safety professionals play in our communities and given new and emergent challenges to public safety like domestic terrorism and climate change, advanced education and training for these professionals couldn’t be more important.”

For more information about the Master’s of Professional Studies in Public Safety Leadership and Administration degree visit: go.umd.edu/plamaryland.


About the University of Maryland Strategic Partnership: MPowering the State

The University of Maryland Strategic Partnership: MPowering the State is a collaboration between the state of Maryland’s two most powerful public research institutions: the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) and the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP). It leverages the sizable strengths and complementary missions of both institutions to strengthen Maryland’s innovation economy, advance interdisciplinary research, create opportunities for students, and solve important problems for the people of Maryland and the nation. Working together, UMB and UMCP achieve innovation and impact through collaboration.

The University of Maryland Strategic Partnership Act of 2016 strengthened and formalized the structured relationship between UMB and UMCP, which began in 2012. The law deepens the alliance and energizes UMB and UMCP to pursue even greater transformative change and impact, far surpassing what each institution could do independent of each other.

About University of Maryland, College Park

The University of Maryland, College Park is the state's flagship university and one of the nation's preeminent public research universities. A global leader in research, entrepreneurship, and innovation, the university is home to more than 40,000 students,10,000 faculty and staff, and 280 academic programs. As one of the nation’s top producers of Fulbright scholars, its faculty includes two Nobel laureates, three Pulitzer Prize winners and 59 members of the national academies. The institution has a $2.1 billion operating budget and secures more than $1 billion annually in research funding together with the University of Maryland, Baltimore. For more information about the University of Maryland, College Park, visit: www.umd.edu.

About the University of Maryland, Baltimore

Founded in 1807, the University of Maryland, Baltimore is Maryland’s only public health, law, and human services university, dedicated to excellence in education, research, clinical care, and public service. UMB enrolls more than 6,800 students in six nationally ranked professional schools — medicine, law, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, and social work — and an interdisciplinary Graduate School. The university provides more than $40 million each year in uncompensated care to Maryland citizens and receives more than $667 million in extramural research funding annually. For more information about the University of Maryland, Baltimore visit: www.umaryland.edu.

New University of Maryland Survey Finds Moderate COVID-19 Concern

March 6, 2020

Lee Tune 301-405-4679

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- The word “panic” is being used by some about the public response in the U.S. to the spreading COVID-19 pandemic; but a new UMD Philip Merrill College of Journalism survey found participants' concern about their risk of contracting the new coronavirus was much more moderate.

In an online national survey of 750 participants between the ages of 18 and 76 conducted March 2, respondents rated their risk of contracting the virus at 2.3 on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being the highest risk. Their rating for being prepared averaged 3.6 with more than half (58 percent) of the participants said they had discussed with friends and family COVID-19 symptoms, risks and prevention. Thirty-nine percent were buying more food and supplies, 38 percent said they discussed “staying at home” plans with employers, and 30 percent were stocking up on medications. Only 17 percent reported subscribing to web sites, emails or text alerts for virus updates.

The lead researcher, Philip Merrill College of Journalism Associate Professor Ronald Yaros, said, “It was interesting to see that television was not among the top two sources for information about the virus.” Participants listed the web (37 percent) as their primary source,, followed by social media (31 percent), TV (26 percent), Print (3 percent), Radio (2 percent) and family or friends (1 percent).

The study also measured participants' level of COVID-19 knowledge and their attitudes toward government officials and agencies, both before and after being presented with an official CDC informational statement on COVID-19. The overall level of COVID-19 knowledge increased only moderately after they read the CDC statement, while perception of government agencies turned more negative.

According to Yaros, these findings may be explained by the relatively low level of agreement of 2.2 [on the 1- 5 scale] with, "The CDC statement did a good job explaining the risks and how the virus might affect you."

After seeing the CDC statement, there was a drop in participants' agreement with, “Government officials care about the personal welfare of people like me.”  It decreased from 3.1 to 2.7.

Participants' agreement with, “I trust our government agencies to protect me from the risks of the coronavirus,” also decreased, going from 3.0 before reading the CDC information to 2.8 afterwards.

However, agreement with, “White House officials are doing a competent job of protecting people from the coronavirus,” changed little after reading the CDC statement, going from 2.9  to 2.96.

Yaros says the plan is to repeat the study at regular intervals to look at changes in public attitudes as the spread and impacts of the virus change.

UMD Raises Over $1.6M on Seventh Annual Giving Day

March 6, 2020

Tiffany Blossom, tblossom@umd.edu, 301-405-4535

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- The University of Maryland raised over $1.6 million on its seventh annual Giving Day. Held on March 4, the 24-hour giving challenge raised money to support the university’s core missions, which include learning, teaching, research, the arts, student life, and public service initiatives. 

Donors were able to give to a wide variety of funds and programs dedicated to schools/colleges, athletics, libraries, performing arts and Greek and student organizations. Donors also had the option to support University funds, including the Keep Me Maryland Fund, UMD Student Crisis Fund, and the Student Success Emergency Scholarship.

Athletics led donations with a fundraising total nearly reaching $283,000, followed by the Office of Undergraduate Studies and the School of Public Health with totals of more than $100,000 and $93,000 respectively.

Throughout the day, there were several opportunities for donors to have their donations matched. When donors gave to the Clark Challenge for the Maryland Promise, a need-based scholarship program for undergraduate students from underserved populations in the state of Maryland and the District of Columbia, gifts were matched dollar for dollar by the A. James & Alice B. Clark Foundation and the University of Maryland. President and Mrs. Loh additionally made a contribution, providing a $10,000 match for all student donations. Similarly, the Clarvit Family, comprised of two generations of Terps, helped match gifts from students, recent graduates, and first-time alumni donors as well as donations made towards emergency scholarship funds, up to a total of $10,000.  

In addition to matching opportunities and leaderboard challenges, the Testudo Shellfie Challenge returned to help encourage the UMD community to take a selfie in order to raise money for the fund of their choice. By posting a selfie on Facebook or Twitter using the hashtag #GivingDayUMD, participants entered the fund they support for one of ten prizes. 

Winners of these prizes included the Graduate School, the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the Mighty Sound of Maryland and the Air Force ROTC.

Since its launch in 2013, UMD Giving Day has raised more than $8 million from the UMD community.

University of Maryland Named a Top Producer of Fulbright U.S. Students for 2019-20

February 19, 2020

Hafsa Siddiqi, hafsa@umd.edu, 301-405-4671

COLLEGE PARK, Md. - The University of Maryland has been recognized as a top producer of Fulbright students by the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs for 2019-2020. UMD was ranked among 45 top-producing research institutions in the nation. 

For the 2019-2020 academic year, 14 UMD students were awarded Fulbright grants, giving them the opportunity to conduct research, exchange ideas and contribute to finding solutions to important international problems. Over the past five years, more than 50 UMD students and scholars have accepted the prestigious Fulbright grants. 

Each year, the Fulbright Program awards approximately 8,000 grants annually. Roughly 1,900 U.S. students, 4,000 foreign students, 1,200 U.S. scholars and 900 visiting scholars receive awards, in addition to several hundred teachers and professionals. More than 380,000 “Fulbrighters” from over 160 countries have participated in the program since its inception in 1946. 

The full list of the top producers can be found in the online edition of The Chronicle of Higher Education

University of Maryland Breaks Ground on New City Hall in Partnership with City of College Park and Terrapin Development Company

February 14, 2020

Ryan Quinones, rquinones@collegeparkmd.gov 240-487-3508, City of College Park 

Hafsa Siddiqi, hafsa@umd.edu 301-405-4671, University of Maryland

COLLEGE PARK, Md.--The University of Maryland (UMD), in partnership with the City of College Park, and Terrapin Development Company (TDC), broke ground on a new 96,000-square-foot mixed-use office building on February 14, 2020. 

The joint effort between the university and the city is unprecedented. The building will be anchored by the City of College Park City Hall and Council Chambers, with a large public plaza for residents and visitors. 44,000-square-feet of the available office space will be reserved for university use. The final component of the project will be 7,000-square-feet of ground-floor retail fronting the plaza that will be managed by Terrapin Development Company. 

This unique project is under construction on the 7400 block of Baltimore Avenue, previously the home of the College Park City Hall building at 4500 Knox Road, as well as several suites of retail on Baltimore Avenue. The new space is slated for a grand opening in late summer 2021. 

“Not only will this building be an important addition to the College Park renaissance, but it will be highly symbolic,” said University of Maryland President Wallace D. Loh.  “Our partnership with our neighbors has never been closer than it will be in this shared building. It is the culmination of years of a strong working relationship.”

“Our new City Hall building represents a new era for the City,” said Mayor Patrick Wojahn, “with opportunities for new and better ways to serve College Park residents, including a new meeting space and transparent City Council Chambers. It also represents a new era for the partnership between the City of College Park and the University of Maryland and an opportunity for a newly revitalized downtown College Park."

This project is one of the latest developments within the Greater College Park initiative, a cooperative effort to shape College Park into one of the nation’s premier college towns. The Greater College Park effort is realized through the linkage of dynamic academic spaces, creation of a public-private research hub and a dynamic and vibrant community. 


About the University of Maryland 
The University of Maryland, College Park is the state's flagship university and one of the nation's preeminent public research universities. A global leader in research, entrepreneurship and innovation, the university is home to more than 40,000 students,10,000 faculty and staff, and 280 academic programs. As one of the nation’s top producers of Fulbright scholars, its faculty includes two Nobel laureates, three Pulitzer Prize winners and 58 members of the national academies. The institution has a $1.9 billion operating budget and secures $514 million annually in external research funding. For more information about the University of Maryland, College Park, visit www.umd.edu.

About the City of College Park 

Situated just minutes from the nation’s capital, the City of College Park is home to the University of Maryland, the world’s oldest continuously operating airport and a wide variety of shops, restaurants, attractions and recreational opportunities. The City is comprised of more than 32,000 residents that reside in diverse settings from historic neighborhoods to luxury student housing complexes. For more information about the City, visit www.collegeparkmd.gov.

About Terrapin Development Company 
Terrapin Development Company (TDC) is a joint venture real estate and economic development entity created by the University of Maryland, College Park and the University of Maryland College Park Foundation. TDC's mission is to create long term value for its members while transforming Greater College Park into a vibrant, diverse and walkable community that attracts the best faculty, staff and students, and galvanizes a culture of research and entrepreneurship.

When Frogs Die Off Snake Diversity Plummets

February 12, 2020

Kimbra Cutlip 301-405-9463

COLLEGE PARK, Md. – The global loss of amphibians is having negative impacts on snakes according to a new study by researchers from the University of Maryland and Michigan State University. 

Since 1998, scientists have documented the global loss of frogs and other amphibians. More than 500 amphibian species have declined in numbers, including 90 that have gone extinct, due to the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium, commonly known as chytrid. 

The new study, published in the February 14, 2020, issue of the journal Science, shows for the first time ripple effects on snakes of this amphibian die off. The findings reveal that after chytrid swept through a remote forest in Panama, decimating frog populations, the number of snake species scientists detected declined dramatically, causing the snake community to become more homogenized. 

“This study highlights the invisibility of other changes that are occurring as a result of losing amphibians,” said Karen Lips, a professor of biology at UMD and a co-author of the study.

Many snakes rely on frogs and frog eggs as part of their diet, so the researchers expected a decline in frogs to impact snake populations. But the slithery reptiles are notoriously cryptic and difficult to study in the wild. How snakes fare following a chytrid epidemic was mostly a matter of conjecture until this study. 

Lips and her colleagues compared seven years of survey data collected in a national park near El Copé, Panama, before the 2004 chytrid outbreak caused mass amphibian die-off, with six years of survey data collected after the die-off. 

“Comparing the after with the before, there was a huge shift in the snake community,” Lips said. “The community became more homogeneous. The number of species declined, with many species going down in their occurrence rates, while a few species increased. Body condition of many snakes was also worse right after the frog decline. Many were thinner, and it looked like they were starving.” 

The researchers cannot say exactly how many snake species declined because snake sightings are rare in general. Some species were only seen once in the pre-chytrid surveys. The researchers could not confirm that a species had disappeared just because it was absent in the post-chytrid surveys. However, over half of the most common snakes (those observed more than five times throughout the total study) had declined in occurrence rates after the frog die-off. Further statistical analysis of the data confirmed a considerable drop in species diversity.

Researchers are confident the changes they observed in the snake community were due to the loss of amphibians and not some other environmental factor. The study area is in a national park with limited impacts from habitat loss, development, pollution or other phenomena that might affect snake populations directly. The remoteness of the El Copé research site and the fact that Lips had been conducting annual surveys in the years prior to the chytrid epidemic combined to provide a rare window into the rapid changes in an ecosystem following the catastrophic loss of amphibians.

“This work emphasizes the importance of long-term studies to our understanding of the invisible, cascading effects of species extinctions,” Lips said. “Everything we watched changed after the frogs declined. We have to know what we are losing, or we run the risk of undermining effective conservation.”

In addition to Lips, authors include UMD alumni Elise Zipkin (Ph.D ‘12, biological sciences) now at Michigan State University, and Grace DiRenzo (Ph.D. ‘16, biological sciences) now at the U.S. Geological Survey.

The research paper “Tropical snake diversity collapses after widespread amphibian loss,” Elise F. Zipkin, Graziella V. DiRenzo, Julie M. Ray, Sam Rossman, Karen R. Lips, was published in the February 14, 2020, issue of the journal Science. 

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Award Nos. EF-1702635, PRFB-1611692, DEB-0717741, DEB-0645875, IBN-0429223, IBN-0429223, and IOB-0519458). The content of this article does not necessarily reflect the views of this organization.


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