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University of Maryland Launches Quantum Technology Center

August 22, 2019

College Park, Md. – The University of Maryland announced today the launch of the Quantum Technology Center (QTC), which aims to translate quantum physics research into innovative technologies. 

The center will capitalize on the university’s strong research programs and partnerships in quantum science and systems engineering, and pursue collaborations with industry and government labs to help take promising quantum advances from the lab to the marketplace. QTC will also train students in the development and application of quantum technologies to produce a workforce educated in quantum-related engineering. 

The new center is a collaboration between UMD’s Department of Physics in the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences (CMNS) and UMD’s Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering in the A. James Clark School of Engineering. 

"The Quantum Technology Center will add to the University of Maryland’s world-renowned leadership in the quantum fields, including physics, engineering, computer science, and materials research," said Laurie Locascio, vice president for research at UMD. "This new center will build on these strengths to develop future quantum technology and new applications, and to train students and researchers in quantum technology."

The announcement comes at a pivotal time when quantum science research is expanding beyond physics into materials science, engineering, computer science, chemistry, and biology. Scientists across these disciplines are looking for ways to exploit quantum physics to build powerful computers, develop secure communication networks, and improve sensing and imaging capabilities. In the future, quantum technology could also impact fields such as artificial intelligence, energy, and medicine. 

The director of QTC will be Ronald Walsworth, who recently joined UMD after serving on the faculty at Harvard University and as a senior physicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 

“We are thrilled that Dr. Ronald Walsworth has chosen the University of Maryland and our commitment to accelerating quantum research and discovery,” said Darryll J. Pines, dean of the A. James Clark School of Engineering and Farvardin Professor. “As a signature senior hire for Maryland and as the inaugural director of the Quantum Technology Center, Dr. Walsworth brings a critical expertise in quantum sensing, measurement, and instrumentation to College Park.”

Walsworth is an expert in utilizing quantum physics to develop advanced measurement tools for medicine, planetary science, and fundamental physics. He holds several patents on a quantum sensing technology that uses an optically active defect in diamond to probe tiny changes in electromagnetic fields and temperature. 

Walsworth’s lab spun off two startups that apply quantum sensing technology to biomedical diagnostics, and he has served as a scientific advisor for several technology companies including Quantum Diamond Technologies Inc., Butterfly Network, Quantum-Si, and Hyperfine Research.

He is also a fellow of the American Physical Society and received its 2005 Francis M. Pipkin Award for his work in developing and applying precision measurement tools. Walsworth received his bachelor’s degree in physics from Duke University in 1984 and his Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University in 1991.

“I am excited to join the strong quantum community at the University of Maryland and work together to make QTC a world leader in quantum technology development, translation, and education,” said Walsworth, who joined UMD for Fall 2019 as the Minta Martin Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering with a joint appointment in the Department of Physics.

QTC will initially draw members from the Departments of Physics, Computer Science, and Electrical and Computer Engineering. New faculty members have also been hired, including Physics Assistant Professors Alicia Kollár and Norbert Linke and Electrical and Computer Engineering Assistant Professor Cheng Gong.

“We are proud to work with our colleagues in engineering to jointly establish the Quantum Technology Center,” said Amitabh Varshney, dean of CMNS. “QTC will enable the rapid development of quantum technologies through high-impact research that spans sensors, secure communication, and advanced computation.”

QTC will have laboratory space in the Physical Sciences Complex, the Jeong H. Kim Engineering Building, and the Clark School’s new E.A. Fernandez IDEA (Innovate, Design and Engineer for America) Factory, which is dedicated to creative innovation and entrepreneurship by students and faculty and is expected to open in 2021. The center will be administered through UMD’s Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics.

The new center will add to the university’s world-renowned leadership in the quantum fields, which includes being ranked No. 6 in quantum and atomic physics by U.S. News & World Report. UMD is also home to two quantum research partnerships with the National Institute of Standards and Technology—the Joint Quantum Institute and the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science—as well as a research collaboration with the Army Research Laboratory.

In addition, UMD quantum faculty members are also entrepreneurs. The quantum computing startup IonQ, which aims to bring general-purpose quantum computers to market, was co-founded by UMD Distinguished University Professor Christopher Monroe.

UMD to Open New Space for Discovery and Collaboration in Crystal City in 2020

August 21, 2019
Contacts: 

Katie Lawson, 301-405-4621, lawsonk@umd.edu

COLLEGE PARK, Md. - The University of Maryland will open a new 8,000-square-foot space in Crystal City, Virginia. The “Discovery Center” will aim to foster innovation and collaboration among UMD students and faculty, Crystal City residents and employees, and alumni in the area. 

With the flagship university’s main campus only 11 miles from Amazon’s new HQ2 in Crystal City, UMD brings unique opportunities and expertise to Northern Virginia, including access to world-renowned tech faculty and the largest number of computer science students in the country, all poised to collaborate with expertise from local firms.

“Amazon HQ2 is a regional phenomenon, and we are just a metro ride away,” said University of Maryland President Wallace D. Loh. “This new space will help connect our flagship researchers and students with this emerging technology hub, fostering innovation in our growing Cyber Valley.”

Beginning in fall 2020, UMD’s College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, A. James Clark School of Engineering, College of Information Studies, and Robert H. Smith School of Business plan to host symposia, lectures and learning events in the new center covering a wide range of topics, such as cybersecurity, machine learning, supply chain management, engineering and human-computer interaction. The programming will combine the strengths of UMD’s top nationally ranked computer science program with expertise from the Clark School, iSchool and Smith School. 

The Discovery Center will provide collaboration and dialogue spaces where academics, local businesses and community residents can interact and exchange ideas, as well as seminar rooms, a strategic planning and creative problem-solving center, spaces for students to work with industry partners, and career development interview rooms to facilitate student internships and employment opportunities. The center will also function as an event space for researchers, industry leaders and alumni to meet, network and discuss industry trends.  

The Discovery Center builds on the university’s presence across the DMV, such as the satellite campus for the Robert H. Smith School of Business at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, D.C., and the presence of 16 UMD degree programs at the Universities at Shady Grove in Montgomery County, Md. 

 

UMD Partners with Three Universities, Professional Association to Combat Sexual Harassment in Political Science

August 21, 2019
Contacts: 

Sara Gavin  301-405-1733

COLLEGE PARK, Md. – A new collaborative, multi-university project that aims to address sexual harassment in the field of political science has received a three-year ADVANCE Partnership Award totaling more than $1 million from the National Science Foundation. 

Associate Professor Stella Rouse from the UMD Department of Government and Politics will work with colleagues from Purdue University, University of Massachusetts Amherst and the University of Nevada Las Vegas on the effort entitled, “#MeTooPoliSci: Leveraging a Professional Association to Address Sexual Harassment in Political Science.”

The project will focus on developing and applying methods and interventions that academic departments of political science across the country can utilize to improve workplace climates and reduce incidents of harassment. Through department climate studies, bystander training, facilitated department dialogues and policy discussions, the research team will examine how issues of harassment affect women with intersecting identities such as sexual identity, race and ethnicity.

The researchers are partnering with the American Political Science Association (APSA) to ensure their work has the potential to impact the nation’s 125 Ph.D.-granting departments and more than 1,100 B.A./M.A.-granting departments in political science. According to APSA, women account for less than 29% of political science faculty (2010), and 70% of female graduate students in the field in 2017 reported sexual harassment on campus. 

"Sexual harassment is prevalent in academia and the field of political science is no exception," said Rouse. “The issue is an obstacle to the ability of women in the discipline to experience a productive and intellectually stimulating learning and working environment. We expect to improve the climate in institutions of higher learning and bring attention to issues of parity and inclusion.” 

One of the major goals of #MeTooPoliSci is to develop an evidence-based “Climate Toolkit” that will empower both departments and individuals to engage in best practices and to track progress over time. Rouse specifically will focus on a portion of the strategy related to upstanding bystander training, which encourages people who witness forms of bias or harassment to speak up.  

The researchers hope their approach will not only influence the field of political science, but will be shared across other disciplines and professional organizations.

University of Maryland Named a 2019 Best Value College

August 16, 2019
Contacts: 

Jennifer Burroughs, jenburr@umd.edu, 301-401-4621

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- The University of Maryland has been deemed a best value college in Kiplinger’s 2019 Best College Value ranking and Money’s 2019 Best College for Your Money ranking. 

Money, a leading source for personal finance news and advice, has Maryland listed as the No. 1 value for public colleges in the state of Maryland, top 30 (No. 28) for public colleges nationwide and top 50 (No. 43) overall among 744 schools in the nation. Kiplinger lists UMD as the No. 10 value for in-state students and top 20 (No. 16) value for out-of-state students seeking an education at a public university. Maryland is ranked 101 overall.

In both rankings, universities are recognized for the quality of education in relation to college affordability for the average student. Both Kiplinger and Money assess a variety of factors to determine value such as overall cost, average debt upon graduation, financial aid opportunities and early career earnings among others. 

Click to view the University of Maryland profiles by Kiplinger and Money.

UMD Researchers Are Awarded $1.5M Grant to Understand Social Media Information Campaigns

August 5, 2019
Contacts: 

Mia K. Hinckle 301-405-1260, Ted Knight 410-703-4685

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- A cross-cutting team of University of Maryland researchers has been awarded $1.5 million from the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to study the spread of information campaigns by examining how emotion affects whether someone will re-share content online.

The UMD research team will collect real-world Facebook and YouTube data in multiple languages to examine the emotional content and viral reach of the posts, as well as the emotional reactions of those annotating the posts.  The funding is one of 12 awards this year from DOD’s Minerva Research Initiative, which supports university-based, unclassified social science research aimed at improving basic understanding of the social, cultural, behavioral, and political forces that shape regions of the world of strategic importance to the U.S. Among the 12 new Minerva projects, UMD’s is one of only three led by women.

Based out of UMD’s Applied Research Laboratory for Intelligence and Security, the team will collect and annotate a sample of 1,000 public Facebook posts and 300 YouTube videos from both Poland and Lithuania that were shared by social and political influencers from those countries. Both countries have often been targeted by Russian information warfare and have strategic relevance to NATO and Europe. Once complete, these annotations will be used to explore the relationship between emotion and the sharing of narratives.

“Whether using outright disinformation or manipulating public opinion with accurate stories, information warfare involves stories shared on social media platforms with specific embedded narratives designed to provoke, enrage, excite and change behavior,” said Susannah Paletz, Principal Investigator of the project, Research Professor in the UMD College of Information Studies and ARLIS Affiliate.

A social psychologist, Paletz has been studying social media for five years for the Office of Naval Research and, in a project last summer, developed an innovative coding scheme to annotate emotions that inspired this new effort.

Reflecting the current, nuanced approach to the psychology of emotions, these annotations extend beyond the so-called six basic emotions – anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise.  Paletz and her colleagues’ annotation scheme includes longer-lasting emotions critical for everyday life and online interaction, including humor, wonder, nostalgia, relief, love and hate. This scheme includes over 20 distinct emotions particularly relevant to the challenge at hand, and the team continues to refine the list.

“We also included something called kama muta, which is an emotion of feeling heart warmed when you see something infantile – in other words, the ‘awww!’ feeling you get when you see something cute. Given that this annotation scheme was for social media, we felt that emotion would be important to collect,” Paletz said.

For their Minerva project, Paletz and her team will work with native speakers at universities in Poland and Lithuania to complete the annotation. Small groups of annotators will first independently use the annotation scheme to judge each of the collected social media posts for each emotion, rating them 0 to 100, for both the content of the social media post and for their own reaction. Then, they will come together to make consensus agreements on the content ratings of the posts where they disagreed.

The results are expected to show how eliciting specific emotions (e.g., anger, contempt, humor) can help a narrative – truthful or not – go viral. The researchers will investigate whether messages evoking emotions that encourage action are more likely to be re-shared. If disinformation provokes the right emotions, people will be more likely to spread it regardless of its accuracy or truth.

Drawn from several different disciplines, Paletz’s research team includes co-PI Anton Rytting, a UMD computational linguist in the Applied Research Laboratory for Intelligence and Security (ARLIS); Cody Buntain, a UMD computer scientist (who will soon join the faculty at the New Jersey Institute of Technology); Devin Ellis, a UMD policy expert, in the National Center for the Study of Terrorism & Response to to Terrorism (START); Ewa Golonka, a UMD Russian linguist and social scientist with ARLIS ; and UMD’s Egle Murauskaite, a START expert on unconventional security threats. 

“These kinds of difficult issues – adversarial disinformation campaigns, hacking, Russian interference – can’t really be solved without us working collaboratively across disciplines,” Paletz said. “Psychologists, computer scientists and information scientists have all been examining online communities for decades and social media for years – but within the confines of their own disciplines. It's been rare for them to work together, as we are, to really integrate methods and theories.”  

The project will also address critical gaps in research about how information travels through populations and across national boundaries and languages. The researchers will develop methods for detecting and tracking how narratives and other memes spread within and across languages. Buntain also expressed an interest in the individuals behind disinformation campaigns.

“I think one thing people get wrong about these kinds of efforts is the characterization that agents responsible for disinformation are highly coordinated, skilled men in dark suits who are pulling strings behind the curtain,” Buntain said. “Instead, I think reality is something closer to a bunch of young people who are getting paid to post online and support a few high-level messages, but are otherwise given a lot of latitude in how they do it. Rather than being experts at propaganda or disinformation, I think many of these individuals are using marketing tools exactly as they were meant to be used, but with an unanticipated intent – are the tools Coca-Cola or Exxon-Mobil uses to market its product all that different? – and these people find what works to get engagement, followers and clicks.”

The research team has already begun identifying Polish and Lithuanian politicians and social influencers. This summer and into the fall, they will collect social media data. Over the next academic year, research assistants in Poland and Lithuania who will be supervised by Golonka and Murauskaite, respectively, will begin conducting the emotion annotation. The team will also examine different types of narratives and will conduct multilevel statistical analyses to understand which emotions and narratives predict social media sharing. The three-year project is expected to conclude in the summer of 2022.

About ARLIS

 

The Applied Research Laboratory for Intelligence and Security (ARLIS), based at the University of Maryland College Park, was established in 2018 under the auspices of the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (OUSD(I)) and the US Air Force Office of Concepts, Development, and Management, intended as a long-term strategic asset for research and development in artificial intelligence, information engineering, and human systems. One of only 14 designated Department of Defense University Affiliated Research Centers (UARCs) in the nation, ARLIS conducts both classified and unclassified research spanning from basic to applied system development and works to serve the US Government as an independent and objective trusted agent.

 

University of Maryland-Phillips Collection Book Prize Goes to 'Sculpture at the Ends of Slavery'

July 31, 2019
Contacts: 

Alana Carchedi Coyle 301.405.0235, Hayley Barton 202.387.2151 x235 

 

COLLEGE PARK, MD and WASHINGTON, DC – The University of Maryland Center for Art and Knowledge at The Phillips Collection has awarded its latest University of Maryland-Phillips Collection Book Prize to the manuscript "Sculpture at the Ends of Slavery". Written by Caitlin Beach, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the Department of Art History at Fordham University, the manuscript addresses sculpture’s relationship to slavery and abolition in transatlantic contexts.

The University of Maryland-Phillips Collection Book Prize supports publication of a first book by an emerging scholar presenting new research in modern or contemporary art from 1780 to the present. The winning books are published by the University of California Press, in collaboration with the University of Maryland and The Phillips Collection. The winning author also receives a $5,000 cash prize. This is the ninth book prize awarded by The Phillips Collection since 2008, and the second prize jointly awarded with the University of Maryland. 

“I feel honored that the selection committee has recognized my work for this award. It's inspiring to have the chance to be a part of conversations about race and modern culture already ongoing with the University of Maryland and The Phillips Collection book series and I look forward to the new directions in which this will push my thinking and writing,” said Beach.

According to Beach, Sculpture at the Ends of Slavery examines the place of sculpture in a transatlantic world contoured by the wide-reaching economy of American slavery and the international campaigns mounted to end it. Focusing on the production, circulation, and exhibition of a range of busts and statues by artists including Hiram Powers, John Bell, Edmonia Lewis, and Francesco Pezzicar, the manuscript shows how the medium stood as a highly visible but deeply unstable site from which to interrogate the politics of slavery across geographies including New Orleans, London, Freetown, Boston, Florence, and Philadelphia.

“It is wonderful that the University of Maryland-Phillips Collection Book Prize discusses such a powerful aspect of the history of slavery and abolition," said Klaus Ottmann, Ph.D., Chief Curator and Deputy Director for Academic Affairs, The Phillips Collection. “Caitlin Beach’s book Sculpture at the Ends of Slavery will insert the arts in a way we have never seen these topics explored.”

“We are pleased to recognize Dr. Beach’s profound work with the book prize award,” said Mary Ann Rankin, Senior Vice President and Provost at the University of Maryland. “Publishing Dr. Beach’s innovative manuscript on sculpture’s relationship to slavery and abolition is a perfect example of the mission of our partnership with The Phillips Collection–advancing scholarship and innovation in the arts.”

Beach’s research and teaching at Fordham University focus on American and European art of the long nineteenth century. She received her Ph.D., M.Phil and M.A. in art history and archaeology from Columbia University. 

ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

The University of Maryland, College Park is the state's flagship university and one of the nation's preeminent public research universities. A global leader in research, entrepreneurship and innovation, the university is home to more than 40,000 students, 10,000 faculty and staff, and 280 academic programs. As one of the nation’s top producers of Fulbright scholars, its faculty includes two Nobel laureates, three Pulitzer Prize winners and 59 members of the national academies. The institution has a $1.9 billion operating budget and secures $514 million annually in external research funding. For more information about the University of Maryland, College Park, visit www.umd.edu.

ABOUT THE PHILLIPS COLLECTION

The Phillips Collection, America’s first museum of Modern art, presents one of the world’s most distinguished Impressionist and American Modern art collections. Including paintings by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Mark Rothko, Alma Thomas, Pierre Bonnard, Georgia O’Keeffe, Vincent van Gogh, Richard Diebenkorn, Henri Matisse, and Jacob Lawrence, among others, the museum continues to actively collect new acquisitions, many by contemporary artists such as Wolfgang Laib, Per Kirkeby, Whitfield Lovell, Zilia Sánchez, and Simone Leigh, and. Its distinctive building combines extensive new galleries with the former home of its founder, Duncan Phillips. The Phillips’s impact spreads nationally and internationally through its highly distinguished special exhibitions, programs, and events that catalyze dialogue surrounding the continuity between art of the past and the present. Among the Phillips’s esteemed programs are its award-winning education programs for educators, students, and adults; well-established Phillips Music series; and sell-out Phillips after 5 events. The museum contributes to the art conversation on a global scale with events like Conversations with Artists and the International Forum. The Phillips Collection values its community partnerships with the University of Maryland—the museum’s nexus for academic work, scholarly exchange, and interdisciplinary collaborations—and THEARC—the museum’s new campus serving the Southeast DC community. The Phillips Collection is a private, non-government museum, supported primarily by donations. 

 

Mellon Foundation Awards $2.8M for Research, Digitization in Humanities

July 25, 2019
Contacts: 

 K. Lorraine Graham 301-405-6127

 


 

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has awarded two grants totaling $2.8 million to the University of Maryland, College Park (UMD) to encourage research in black digital humanities and to develop technology expanding digital access to books from the pre-modern Persian and Arabic world.  

A $2 million, three-year grant will support the second phase of the African American History, Culture and Digital Humanities (AADHUM) initiative. Housed in the College of Arts and Humanities (ARHU), AADHUUM seeks to expand and institutionalize the field of Black digital humanities at UMD and beyond. The first phase of the initiative was also funded by The Mellon Foundation.  

 "African American history and culture are central to American history and culture," said Bonnie Thornton Dill, dean of the college and professor of women’s studies. "Making this knowledge widely available and giving people the opportunity to have hands-on experiences using digital technology to tell important stories is critical to enhancing our democracy."

She will continue to lead the project with Daryle Williams, associate professor of history and ARHU associate dean for faculty affairs, and Trevor Muñoz, interim director of the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH) and assistant dean for digital humanities research in the University Libraries.

They will establish a long-term home for black digital humanities at UMD by hiring additional faculty, formalizing a competitive graduate research training and professionalization experience, offering mentor-training programs, expanding research partnerships with historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and developing best practices for tenure and promotion in black digital humanities.

Muñoz said AADHum has transformed the practice of digital humanities at MITH.     

“If MITH offers a workshop on digital mapping, we need to make space for discussing the vulnerability that mapping certain populations, like activists or undocumented immigrants, creates,” he said. 

The second Mellon Foundation grant, of $800,000 over two years, will support the development of user-friendly, open-source software capable of creating digital texts from Persian and Arabic books. 

Matthew Thomas Miller, assistant professor in the Roshan Institute for Persian Studies in the college’s School of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures, leads an interdisciplinary team of researchers from Northeastern University, Aga Khan University in London and the University of Vienna along with Raffaele Viglianti, research programmer at MITH.

"We realized that there was work being done separately in different areas to create tools for digitizing Persian and Arabic documents," said Miller, "but there wasn't a lot of communication across fields and these new advances were not making their way into the hands of users." 

To date, the development of digitization software has primarily focused on Latin-script languages, and in many cases requires specialized knowledge to run. Existing Persian and Arabic digitization tools fall short on accuracy and are often prohibitively expensive for academic and public users. 

"These thousands of unread texts are a potential treasure trove," said Miller. "Until we really get into it and begin digitizing and then examining them, we won't know what we might find or what new narratives and histories might unfold."

As part of the research team’s commitment to innovative software development and collaborative, interdisciplinary research, it will foster a community of users by hosting regular training sessions, establishing online user groups and teaching an undergraduate digital humanities class hosted jointly at Maryland and AKU through UMD's Global Classrooms Initiative

The grant will also fund two postdoctoral fellows and two graduate fellows in computer science and Middle Eastern studies. 

"Our goal is to grow capacity throughout these fields," Miller said, "which means both training scholars of Persian and Arabic in digital methods and computer scientists in the particularities of Persian and Arabic documents."

New International Study Identifies Causes of Multidecadal Climate Changes

July 25, 2019
Contacts: 

Matthew Wright 301-405-9267

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- A new reconstruction of global average surface temperature change over the past 2,000 years has identified the main causes for decade-scale climate changes.  Conducted by an international team of researchers that included University of Maryland Geology Professor Michael Evans, the analysis suggests that Earth’s current warming rate, caused by human greenhouse gas emissions, is higher than any warming rate observed previously. The researchers also found that airborne particles from volcanic eruptions were primarily responsible for several brief episodes of global cooling prior to the Industrial Revolution of the mid-19thcentury.

The new temperature reconstruction also largely agrees with climate model simulations of the same time period. The researchers found agreement for temperature changes caused by identifiable factors, such as volcanic aerosols and greenhouse gases, as well as for random fluctuations in climate that take place on the same timescales. This suggests that current climate models accurately represent the contributions of various influences on global climate change—and are capable of correctly predicting future climate warming.

The research team—19 members of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) project,—used seven different statistical methods to perform the reconstruction. The results were published online in in the journal Nature Geoscience on July 24, 2019.

“Our reconstructions look like the ‘hockey stick’ diagram of global temperature change that was first reconstructed more than two decades ago,” said Evans, who is also co-chair of PAGES and has a joint appointment at UMD’s Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (ESSIC). “Thanks to the work of the PAGES community, we have much more data now. The results were consistent regardless of how we created the reconstructions or which randomly chosen subset of input data we used.”

The new 2,000-year reconstruction improves on previous efforts by using the most detailed and comprehensive database of its kind yet assembled. This dataset, painstakingly compiled by PAGES researchers, includes nearly 700 separate publicly available records from sources that contain indicators of past temperatures, such as long-lived trees, reef-building corals, ice cores, and marine and lake sediments. The data are sourced from all of Earth’s continental regions and major ocean basins.

By comparing the new reconstructions with existing climate simulations generated using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) climate models, the PAGES research team was able to determine the relative contributions of several influences on global temperatures over time. These included natural influences, such as fluctuations in solar heating and the cooling effect of particles ejected by volcanic eruptions, as well as the human-caused influence of greenhouse gas emissions. 

This graph of global shows mean rates of temperature change over the last 2,000 years, as determined by a new reconstruction based on climate proxy data. Image credit: University of Bern

Above graph shows global mean rates of temperature change over the last 2,000 years, based on this new research. Red denotes temperature increases. Blue denotes temperature decreases. The green line shows maximum expected warming rate without human influence. The dashed orange line signifies ability of climate models to simulate this natural upper limit. The black line indicates average global as determined by direct measurements since the Industrial Revolution. Image credit: University of Bern .

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The results suggest that volcanic activity was responsible for variations before about 1850. After that, greenhouse gases became the dominant influence on global climate. By removing these influences in their analysis, the researchers also identified the magnitude of the random changes that cannot be traced to a specific cause. The team’s data-based reconstructions also agreed with model simulations when evaluating these random changes.

“This makes us more confident that our reconstructions are realistic and, in turn, that the climate models are simulating past and future climate warming faithfully,” Evans added.

This agreement between the researchers’ data-based reconstructions and the CMIP5 simulations suggests that existing climate models can accurately predict future global temperature change over the next few decades, according to Evans. However, these simulations depend heavily on the choices that humans make in the future, which is very difficult to predict, Evans added. 

“The uncertainty in the influence of human activities is not so large when looking forward only a few decades,” Evans said. “But in the longer term, the choices we make for our energy sources and how much carbon these sources emit really matter.”

The research paper, “Consistent multi-decadal variability in global temperature reconstructions and simulations over the Common Era,” the PAGES 2k Consortium (Raphael Neukom, Luis Barboza, Michael Erb, Feng Shi, Julien Emile-Geay, Michael Evans, Jörg Franke, Darrell Kaufman, Lucie Lücke, Kira Rehfeld, Andrew Schurer, Feng Zhu, Stefan Brönnimann, Gregory Hakim, Benjamin Henley, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Nicholas McKay, Veronika Valler and Lucien von Gunten), was published in the journal Nature Geoscienceon July 24, 2019.

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Swiss Academy of Sciences, the Swiss National Science Foundation (Award No. PZ00P2_154802), the German Research Foundation (Award No. RE3994-2/1), the European Union (Award No. 787574), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award Nos. 41877440, 41430531, and 41690114), and the UK Natural Environment Research Council (Award No. NE/P006752/1). The content of this article does not necessarily reflect the views of these organizations.

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Swiss Academy of Sciences, the Swiss National Science Foundation (Award No. PZ00P2_154802), the German Research Foundation (Award No. RE3994-2/1), the European Union (Award No. 787574), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award Nos. 41877440, 41430531, and 41690114), and the UK Natural Environment Research Council (Award No. NE/P006752/1). The content of this article does not necessarily reflect the views of these organizations.

Scientists Identify New Genetic Interactions that May Impact Cancer Outcomes

July 24, 2019
Contacts: 

Kimbra Cutlip 301-405-9463

COLLEGE PARK, Md. -- In a new study, scientists at the University of Maryland and the National Cancer Institute identified 12 distinct types of gene-pair interactions in which varying levels of expression in the two genes correlated with cancer patient survival. The results, which were published in the journal Cell Reports on July 23, 2019, suggest that genes involved in such paired interactions could provide new targets for cancer therapy.

New research shows interactions between genes expressed at different levels can impact cell survival. Shown is a triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell during cell division. Photo credit: NCI_University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute.Living cells contain tens of thousands of genes that serve as instruction guides for making the proteins cells need to survive. These genes function in highly cooperative and interdependent ways, and scientists have long known that a change in the expression of one gene can affect how other genes function. These interdependencies can impact a cell’s ability to survive.

“Relying on specific cancer vulnerabilities, such as a particular mutated gene’s functional relationship with other genes, is potentially an effective approach to treating cancer,” said the study’s senior author Sridhar Hannenhalli, a professor in the Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics at UMD.

This approach is already being explored in one type of gene-pair relationship called synthetic lethality, in which inactivation of both genes is lethal to a cell, but inactivation of one gene by itself is not. In cancer cells where mutations inactivate one gene, drugs inhibiting the partner gene would be lethal to cancer cells but have minimal or no effect on healthy tissue in which the first gene is expressed normally.

This new work revealed a broad spectrum of important gene-pair relationships in addition to synthetic lethality. Many of these new relationships were more abundant in the researchers’ data than synthetic lethality, which means they may offer many more potential targets for cancer therapy.   

“Our work expands the potential scope of strategies, thus far restricted to synthetic lethality, by generalizing the concept of exploiting genetic interactions to include many other yet unexplored types of gene-pair relationships,” said Hannenhalli, who has a joint appointment in the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS). “We believe this lays the foundation for using a computational method for identifying and studying additional types of genetic interactions in the future.”

The paper presents a new, data-driven method for identifying gene interactions that could impact cancer patient outcomes, which Hannenhalli developed in collaboration with former UMD graduate student Assaf Magen (Ph.D. ’19, computer science), the first author of the study, and Eytan Ruppin, currently at the National Cancer Institute and the former director of the Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology at UMD.

Working with data from 5,288 tumors representing 18 different cancer types, the team defined six interactions in which each gene in a pair could be expressed at a low, medium or high level. They then considered that each of those combinations could be associated with a “positive” or “negative” outcome for patient survival. That brought the total number of potential gene-pair relationship types to 12. 

Using a novel computational strategy, the researchers assessed all possible combinations of genes in their dataset. Out of 163 million potential gene pairs, the researchers identified nearly 72,000 gene-pair interactions associated with a positive or negative patient survival. Of the genes involved in these interactions, a significant proportion are known to be involved in cell division and proliferation, which have clear links to cancer.

According to Hannenhalli, identifying gene-pair relationships can help scientists understand why mutations in certain genes lead to cancer in one tissue but not another, because their interacting partners might be expressed differently in different types of tissue. Similarly, gene-pair relationships could explain why certain drugs are effective for one patient but not another. The relationships also might help researchers identify subtypes of certain cancers, such as breast cancer, which may help with prognosis and therapy.

Using their findings on gene-pair interactions, the researchers were able to better predict patient outcomes in their data on tumor gene expression, compared with conventional methods that use expression of individual genes alone.

Hannenhalli stressed that there is still much work to be done to identify which gene pairs actually have a direct impact on cancer patient survival. The next step, he said, is to collaborate with cancer biologists or clinicians to begin experimenting with therapies targeted at some of the gene pairs identified in this study.  

Additional co-authors of the research paper who conducted the work while at UMD include former postdoctoral fellows Avinash Das and Joo Sang Lee, former graduate student Mahfuza Sharmin (Ph.D. ’17, computer science), and computer science undergraduate Alexander Lugo.

This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute and the National Science Foundation (Award No. 1564785). The content of this article does not necessarily reflect the views of these organizations.

The research paper, “Beyond Synthetic Lethality: Charting The Landscape of Pairwise Gene Expression States Associated with Survival in Cancer,” Assaf Magen, Avinash Das, Joo Sang Lee, Mahfuza Sharmin, Alexander Lugo, Silvio Gutkind, Alejandro A. Shaffer, Eytan Ruppin, Sridhar Hannenhalli, was published in Cell Reports on July 23, 2019.

University of Maryland Working With Former Prince George’s County Executive Baker on Executive Leadership Initiative

July 23, 2019
Contacts: 

Natifia Mullings, 301-405-4076

COLLEGE PARK, Md. - The University of Maryland is working with Former Prince George’s County Executive, Rushern L. Baker, III, to establish a national executive leadership training program for local government officials with the university’s School of Public Policy. 

 

The program will bring together Baker’s more than 20 years of government and legal experience, including eight as County Executive, with the School of Public Policy’s expertise in developing innovative solutions that address the ever-increasing policy challenges facing local leaders. 

 

“I am thrilled to be partnering with the University of Maryland’s School of Public Policy in launching a training program for newly elected local officials,” said Baker, past president of the County Executives of America, and two term member of the Board of the National Association of Counties. “As I learned first-hand, most elected officials, myself included, campaign in poetry but must quickly transition to prose once they get in office to deal with a host of complex and challenging issues awaiting them. I look forward to utilizing both my wealth of experience as an elected executive as well as my extensive contacts within the National Association of Counties, the County Executives of America and a host of other national organizations to build better leaders through the approximately 25,000 counties and cities that exist throughout the United States.”

 

"I'm thrilled that Rushern Baker is launching this training institiute for newly elected county and city officials, in partnership with our School of Public Policy. The expertise and experience that he brings, joined with the academic assets of the University of Maryland, will result in an outstanding leadership and training," said UMD President Wallace D. Loh. 

 

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